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Proc. IAHS, 366, 44-53, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-366-44-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
 
10 Apr 2015
Hydrological extremes and security
Z. W. Kundzewicz1,2 and P. Matczak1,3 1Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland
2Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg 31, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
3Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Szamarzewskiego 89c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland
Abstract. Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

Citation: Kundzewicz, Z. W. and Matczak, P.: Hydrological extremes and security, Proc. IAHS, 366, 44-53, https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-366-44-2015, 2015.
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